产品经理的42个原则-原则36-Decide What You Are Going to Do and Not Do:决定你要做什么,不要做什么!

Regardless of size, every company has limited resources and must make some tough decisions about what product and services they want to offer. In parallel, companies must also decide what market segments they are not going to pursue at any given point in time. When companies understand the nuances of markets, they are able to build winning products and solutions, increase sales revenue, and have the capital for sustained growth.

无论规模大小,每家公司的资源都是有限的,它们必须对自己想要提供的产品和服务做出艰难的决定。与此同时,企业还必须决定,在任何给定的时间点,它们不打算进入哪些细分市场。当公司了解这些市场的细微差别时,他们就能够开发出成功的产品和解决方案,增加销售收入,并拥有持续增长的资本。

Let’s take a closer look at why it’s important to understand market segments.

让我们仔细看看为什么了解细分市场很重要。

Large markets represent billions (or trillions) of dollars of opportunity, but they cannot be approached at this level because large markets are really a composite of medium markets which are made up of smaller and smaller markets. Each market segment supports a specific group of market needs.

大市场代表着数十亿(或数万亿)美元的机会,但这些市场在这个水平上是无法接近的,因为大市场实际上是由较小的市场形成的中等市场的组合。每个细分市场支持特定的一组市场需要。

Figure: Sample Markets and Automotive Market Segments

Further Market Segmentation Techniques

进一步的市场细分技术

As markets mature, companies need to put more energy into positioning and choose those market segments which best align with their products, services, and solutions offering as well as core competencies. In general, companies that position at the high end of a market are not able to also sell products at the low end. Likewise, high-fashion brands are not appealing to no-frills utilitarian buyers and high-fashion brand buyers prefer the brand because of its exclusivity and would not purchase a mainstream product.

随着市场的成熟,公司需要投入更多的精力进行定位,选择那些基于核心竞争力提供的与产品、服务、解决方案最匹配的细分市场。一般来说,处于高端市场定位的公司不可能在低端市场销售产品。同样的,流行时尚品牌也不会吸引注重实用的购买者,而流行时尚品牌的购买者更喜欢这个品牌,因为它的排他性强,而不会购买主流产品。

New and adjacent markets can also represent growth opportunities for companies, but need to be looked at strategically because supporting a new business requires dedicated resources and capital.

新市场和相邻市场也可能意味着公司的增长机会,但需要从战略上考虑,因为支持新业务需要专门的资源和资金。

So, Does (Company) Size Matter?

那么,(公司)规模重要吗?

Early stage and small companies must identify a market problem and build their product/solution around this need. Picking an initial market segment is critical for success because a one-size-fits-all solution is not practical to build and probably not compelling to anyone.

早期阶段和小公司必须识别一个市场问题并围绕这个需要构建他们的产品/解决方案。选择最初的细分市场对于成功至关重要,因为一刀切的解决方案是不现实的,也可能不会吸引任何人。

For example, Tesla Motors entered the saturated car market with a $100,000 electric roadster, which is a niche market segment for sport car enthusiasts. This high-end entry point allowed Tesla to develop and prove out new technology while generating some revenue and working on their second-generation car, a four-door luxury sedan designed for the high-end market.

例如,特斯拉汽车公司(Tesla Motors)以10万美元的电动跑车进入了饱和的汽车市场,这是运动车型爱好者的利基市场。这一高端入口让特斯拉得以开发和证明新技术,同时也创造了一些收入,并开始开发第二代汽车,这是一款专为高端市场设计的四门豪华轿车。

In contrast, larger companies support multiple market segments and must be clear about their core business solutions. As companies grow, the cost to support multiple product lines and market segments also increases. Broader products/solutions also add complexity to the buying process. Tesla, for example, has two car models while BMW has over fifty.

相比之下,大公司支持多个细分市场,就必须清楚自己的核心业务解决方案。随着公司的成长,支持多个产品线和细分市场的成本也在增加。更广泛的产品/解决方案也增加了购买过程的复杂性。例如,特斯拉(Tesla)有两款车型,而宝马(BMW)有50多款。

Deciding What Not to Do

决定不做什么

Companies must also be clear about what businesses and market segments they are not going to support because every company has limited resources.

企业还必须清楚自己不会支持哪些商业和细分市场,因为每家公司的资源都有限。

Companies should look at the size and growth of markets, their current offerings, technical expertise, and competition to strategically decide where to apply resources to get the largest return on their investment.

公司应该关注市场的规模和增长、当前的产品、技术专长和竞争,以便战略性地决定在何处应用资源,以获得最大的投资回报。

Deciding what not to do is a natural fallout of their current product and business plans and may be parsed into three groups. First, if a market segment is clearly outside a company’s domain expertise, it’s easy to discount. Second, if the company is resource constrained and wants to pursue an adjacent market segment, the opportunity may become a road map item. And to close, after reviewing and prioritizing all the market/product opportunities, a company may decide to put some projects on hold and revisit the opportunity in six to twelve-plus months.

决定不做什么是他们当前产品和商业计划的自然结果,可能会被分成三类。首先,如果一个细分市场明显超出了一家公司的领域专长,那么很容易会打折扣。其次,如果公司资源有限,想要追求邻近的细分市场,这个机会可能会成为一个路线图项目。最后,在回顾并优先考虑所有的市场/产品机会之后,公司可能会决定暂停一些项目,并在6到12个多月后重新考虑这个机会。



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