【译文】B2B产品管理的20条实用规则(17-20)(字多无图挺有用)

RULE 17:You need a positioning document for each type of buyer

你需要为每种类型的购买者做一个定位文档

In the dawn of technology marketing, we spoke “techinese,” emphasizing features and often forgetting the benefits.

在技术产品营销的初期,我们说的是“技术术语”,强调的是特征,却常常忘记了利益。

Then someone uttered those immortal words, “People don’t buy features; they buy benefits.” So we were off to the races with benefits statements.

然后有人说出了那句不朽的话:“人们并非购买特征,而是购买利益。“所以我们带着利益声明出发了。

Unfortunately, all benefits statements started to sound alike: Use our product to save time and money, increase productivity, and grow your revenues. You could read these benefits statements and come away with no idea whatsoever whether someone was trying to sell you a mainframe or a spreadsheet.

不幸的是,所有的利益声明听起来都很相似:使用我们的产品可以节省时间和金钱,提高生产力,增加收入。你可能读了这些利益声明,却不知道这些人是想卖给你主机还是电子表格。

This all came about because, as marketers, we often fail to think through exactly who our buyers are—especially in terms of all the various constituencies who might be involved in a purchase decision.

这一切都是因为,作为市场营销人员,我们常常不能准确地考虑我们的购买者是谁——尤其是考虑到所有可能参与购买决策的不同群体。

We jumped from thinking only about the techies and their need to know the gritty product details, to thinking only about the illustrious “C-level” exec who just wants to know the ROI.

我们从只考虑技术人员和他们对产品细节的需求,跳到只考虑只想知道投资回报率的著名“C级”高管。

With individual positioning work, you’ll have the essential messages you need to communicate about your product and its value to all of your audiences.

通过对个体的定位工作,您将获得必要的信息,以便向所有受众传达关于产品及其价值的信息。

  • For the technology buyer, go heavy on the features and technical details. By the time they’re looking at your product, these buyers have often already made the decision to buy something. They need to know what differentiates your product from the pack. Sure, they want to know how your features translate into benefits, but mostly, they want to know how it works, what it’s made of, and what it’s going to take to implement and support. When they’re thinking benefits, they’re probably looking for what they need in order to sell up the chain in their organization.

对于技术型购买者来说,他们着重于功能和技术细节。当这些购买者看到你的产品时,他们通常已经决定要买什么了。他们需要知道你的产品和其他产品有什么不同。当然,他们想知道你的特征是如何转化为利益的,但更重要的是,他们想知道它是如何工作的,它是由什么组成的,以及它将如何实现和支持。当他们考虑利益的时候,他们可能在寻找他们需要的东西,以便在他们的组织中销售。

  • End users mostly want to know what your product does for them, how it’s going to change the way they work, and how easy it’s going to be for them to learn to use. And just like misery, end users love company: They want to know who else is using your product.

终端用户大多想知道你的产品能为他们做什么,它将如何改变他们的工作方式,以及他们学习使用它有多容易。就像痛苦一样,终端用户喜欢同伴:他们想知道还有谁在使用你的产品。

  • Managers may not need all the details that the tech buyer and end user do, but they still need info on how your product is going to make life better for their people and for them. It’s at this level that the positioning starts shifting gears from being predominantly feature-oriented to a bit more benefits-oriented.

经理们可能不需要技术购买者和终端用户需要的所有细节,但他们仍然需要你的产品如何让他们的员工和他们自己更精彩的信息。正是在这个层次上,定位开始从主要面向功能转向更面向利益。

  • For the executive/economic buyer, your positioning moves squarely into the benefits camp. But you still need to ensure that the positioning communicates what the product is and does, since even the most hands-off execs need to know whether they’re okaying the purchase of accounting software or a storage drive.

对于高管/财务购买者来说,你的定位完全是为了利益。但你仍然需要确保这个定位传达了产品是什么,做了什么,因为即使是最不干涉的高管也需要知道他们是否同意购买会计软件或存储驱动器。

  • Don’t forget vertical positioning, either. Most industries have their own peculiarities and lingo.

也不要忘记垂直定位。大多数行业都有自己的特点和行话。

Having these positioning documents on hand saves you a lot of effort when you’re creating sales tools, collateral, and program material. You’ll know what to say, and you’ll make sure you’re saying the right thing to the right people.

有了这些定位文档,在您创建销售工具、附属品和方案材料时,可以节省大量的工作。你会知道该说什么,你会确保你对正确的人说正确的事。


RULE 18:Name the product after positioning is finished

定位完成后再给产品命名


Given that you want your product name to resonate in some way, this is a good rule of thumb.

如果你想让你的产品名称在某种程度上产生共鸣,这是一个很好的经验法则。

With your positioning complete, you realize which attributes of your product are the most compelling, so you can craft a product name that speaks to those attributes. Is your product all things to all people? Are you most psyched about how environmentally friendly it is? How about “Green Thang”? (Okay, that’s terrible, but you get the point.)

定位完成后,你就会意识到您的产品的哪些属性是最吸引人的,因此你可以创建一个与这些属性相对应的产品名称。你的产品适合所有人吗?你最喜欢的是它的环保程度吗?“Green Thang”怎么样?(好吧,这很糟糕,但你明白我的意思。)

Whatever product name you choose, keep in mind product naming isn’t nearly as important or essential for technology products as it is for consumer products. You brush with Crest toothpaste, not P&G.

无论你选择什么产品名称,记住,科技产品名称的重要性和必要性远不如对消费品的重要性和必要性。你用的是佳洁士牙膏,而不是宝洁。

Many B2B technology products are referred to by the company name, not by the specific product name (for example, many people say “Oracle” when asked what database they use). So you don’t always have to spend a lot of money and effort coming up with perfect names, when what you really want to do is promote your company name as your brand. Sure, there are exceptions— Microsoft Office, Outlook, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint come to mind—but what matters most is your company name.

许多B2B技术产品是通过公司名称而不是具体的产品名称(例如,当被问及他们使用什么数据库时,许多人说“Oracle”)。所以,当你真正想做的是把公司的名字作为你的品牌来推广时,你不必总是花费大量的金钱和精力来想出完美的名字。当然,也有例外——你会想到微软办公软件、Outlook、Word、Excel和PowerPoint——但最重要的是你的公司名称。

Another thing to consider—and I’d recommend this for anybody who thinks they’re ever going to have more than one product to name: Create an overall naming architecture and set of guidelines. Maybe all products will start with the Company Name, followed by a straightforward expression of what the product is or does:

另一件需要考虑的事情是——我建议那些认为他们将有不止一个产品需要命名的人这样做:创建一个整体的命名体系结构和一组指导原则。也许所有的产品都会以公司名称开头,然后简单地说明产品是什么或做什么:

  • Acme Accounting Software
  • Acme HR Software

Maybe it’s Company Name, followed by something that combines an element of what the product is, as well as an associated attribute.

可能是公司名称,然后是某个组合了产品元素和相关属性的东西。

  • Acme Accounting Excellence
  • Acme HR Excellence

Or vice versa:

反之亦然:

  • Acme Excellence for Accounting
  • Acme Excellence for HR

While you’re at it, figure out how you’re going to handle versioning, “special editions,” and any other rules you want observed (for example, don’t use two of the same vooweels together in the same word).

在此过程中,要弄清楚如何处理版本、“特殊版本”和任何其他您希望遵守的规则(例如,不要在同一个单词中同时使用两个相同的vooweels)。

If you’ve got all this codified ahead of time, people will spend a lot less time agonizing over names.

如果你提前把这些都整理好了,人们就不会花那么多时间纠结于名字了。


RULE 19:Provide collateral, tools, and programs to support each step in the sales cycle

提供材料、工具和方案来支持销售周期中的每一步


Early in the sales cycle, a prospect needs to know the basics about your product and company— enough to help establish interest (theirs) and credibility (yours). Period. Dangle a case study in front of them. If they bite, great! You’ve moved them a little further along.

在销售周期的早期,潜在客户需要了解你的产品和公司的基本情况——这足以帮助他们建立兴趣(他们的)和信誉(你的)。在此期间。在他们面前拿出一个案例进行研究。如果它们咬钩,太棒了!你把它们往前再移一点。

Thinly veiled sales pitches can go out in the second wave. But you might want to reserve a really meaty whitepaper—one that digs into industry and/or technology trends and downplays the product stuff—for someone who’s demonstrated serious interest. (If you have such a whitepaper, you probably paid plenty for it and should use it judiciously—this goodie is worth something)

不加掩饰的推销说辞可能会在第二波浪潮中消失。但你可能会想要为那些真正感兴趣的人保留一份内容丰富的白皮书——一份深入行业和/或技术趋势,并对产品内容轻描淡写的白皮书。(如果你有这样一份白皮书,你可能已经花了很多钱了,你应该明智地使用它——这份好东西是有价值的)

Nitty-gritty product info should be available to the serious tech buyer. Within reason, you’ll have a lot of this material on your website as downloads, but you might want to reserve highly detailed information for prospects that are fairly far along in the sales cycle—and have the salesperson send it, or make it available via special download.

详细的产品信息应该提供给认真的技术购买者。在合理的范围内,你会在你的网站上有很多这样的资料作为下载,但是你可能想要为销售周期相当长的潜在客户保留非常详细的信息——让销售人员发送它,或者通过特殊的下载提供它。

As you move forward in the sales cycle, you’ll want to introduce tools and collateral that help the ROI cause, provide customer testimonials, explain implementation, etc. At this point, prospects have a need to know and need to use.

当你在销售周期中前进时,你会想要引入工具和材料来帮助ROI的产生,提供客户证明,解释实施,等等。在这一点上,预期有必要知道和需要使用。

For heaven’s sake, don’t send out the whizbang PowerPoint until you’re scheduled to walk through it in a virtual meeting (maybe not even then). You can always email the file to the prospect after the presentation.

看在上帝的份上,在你被安排在一次虚拟会议上展示之前,千万不要发送出“奇迹般”的ppt(也许那时候还没有)。你可以在演示结束后将文件通过电子邮件发送给潜在客户。

When meeting in person, some people like to distribute presentation copies beforehand; others like to distribute them after the fact. I’m for giving them out after the fact, preferring to turn a presentation, wherever possible, into a two-way conversation, rather than a slide read-along. And make sure that the slides are annotated, so that someone who wasn’t at the presentation is not reading a page that says only:

当面见面时,有些人喜欢事先分发演示文稿;其他人喜欢在事后分发。我更倾向于在演示结束后再发出文稿,尽可能地将演示转换成双向对话,而不是幻灯片阅读。确保幻灯片上有注释,这样那些没有参加演讲的人就不会读到只有以下内容的页面:

  • It’s big. • It’s wonderful. • You’ll like it.

With notes, they can read the fine print and understand what point you’re trying to make.

有了注释,他们就能读懂细则,明白你想表达的意思。

Whether you work at a small or large company, there’s always the temptation to shoot out all the collateral at once. Take one of everything! Don’t we have a lot of neat stuff for you? And now, of course, we have a tendency to put all that stuff up on the website and let prospects download whatever they want. Unfortunately, those prospects could get overwhelmed and/or not read much of anything. So, it’s really best to reserve some bits of information that your salespeople can send out at different points in the cycle (following a roadmap for what-goes-where-when that you provided).

无论你是在大公司还是小公司工作,总是有一种冲动,想要一下子把所有的材料都拿出来。每样东西都拿一个!我们不是有很多很棒的东西给你吗?现在,当然,我们倾向于把所有的东西放在网站上,让潜在客户下载他们想要的任何东西。不幸的是,这些潜在客户可能会被淹没和/或没有读太多东西。所以,最好是保留一些信息,以便销售人员在销售周期的不同阶段发送出去(根据您提供的路线图,了解您将在何时何地发送哪些信息)。

Similarly, your marketing programs—tradeshows, seminars, webinars, direct marketing, blogs— should be used for different purposes and at different times in the cycle. But don’t forget, many programs can serve multiple purposes: If you’re going to a tradeshow, you’re probably trolling for leads, but don’t forget that it’s a good opportunity to set up face-time with customers who’ll also be attending.

类似地,你的营销方案——贸易展、研讨会、网络研讨会、直销、博客——应该用于不同的目的和周期的不同时间。但别忘了,很多项目都有多种用途:如果你要参加一个展会,你可能在寻找线索,但别忘了,这是一个与同样参展的客户见面的好机会。

B2B technology sales don’t tend to occur as one-shot events. They take time. And during that time, you want to make sure that you have something more to say or do than have your sales folks on the phone asking, “Have you made your decision yet?”

B2B技术型产品的销售往往不是一次性完成的。他们需要时间。在这段时间里,你要确保你有更多要说或要做的事情,而不是让你的销售人员在电话里问:“你做决定了吗?”


RULE 20:The market-driven product manager should be the final authority on what goes into the product

市场驱动的产品经理应该是产品的最终权威


While this should be the most obvious of rules—after all, someone has to be the final authority on product requirements—the operative term here is market-driven.

虽然这应该是最显而易见的规则——毕竟,必须有人是产品需求的最终权威——但这里的有效术语是市场驱动的。

Take it from someone who’s been both a product manager and a marketdriven product manager, there’s a world of difference between the two.

从一个产品经理和一个市场驱动型产品经理的经验来看,这两者是有天壤之别的。

The plain-old product manager serves a very valuable function, making sure that the requirements are nailed down; keeping a product release on track; knowing at any given time just where things stand with development, QA, documentation, packaging, manufacturing, production, training, marketing, support, sales, etc. The product manager knows who the customers are—and who they aren’t. The product manager gets to buy all those bubblegum cigars for launch date—“It’s a product!”

普通的产品经理起着非常重要的作用,确保需求被确定下来;保持产品发布在正轨上;随时了解开发、QA、文档、包装、制造、生产、培训、市场、支持、销售等方面的情况。产品经理知道谁是客户,也知道谁不是。产品经理可以为了上市日期买到所有的泡泡糖雪茄——“这是一个产品!”

Sounds pretty good, no?

听起来相当不错,不是吗?

But here’s where life is not so good for the non-marketdriven product manager: He or she may have made sure the requirements were nailed down, but they’re not likely the one who actually did the nailing.

但是,对于非市场驱动的产品经理来说,情况就不那么好了:他或她可能确信需求已经被确定,但他们又不太可能是真正负责确定的人。

Absent strong awareness of the market—the kind that comes from knowing your customers, industry, product domain, competition, and business and technology environments—a product manager will almost invariably give in to the loud-mouth/know-it-all brigade—developer, salesperson, or anyone else who is willing to voice a strong opinion .

缺乏强烈的意识去了解客户的市场类型,行业,产品领域,竞争,以及商业和技术环境,一个产品经理将几乎总是屈服于大嗓门/自以为无所不知的人-开发,销售人员,或其他任何愿意发出强烈观点的人。

The product manager in this scenario is really a glorified project manager—the keeper of the Gantt charts, spreadsheets, and schedules—but not the person who truly “owns” the product. That is, until the product meets with some market resistance. Then, you can best believe heads will swivel toward the product manager, eyes will turn, fingers will point. “How did we let the product go out the door without X, which everybody seems to want? Why did we waste all that time and money on making sure the product did Y, which nobody seems to want?”

在这个场景中,产品经理实际上是一个被美化了的项目经理——甘特图、电子表格和日程的管理者——而不是真正“拥有”产品的人。也就是说,直到产品遇到一些市场阻力。然后,你最好相信你的头会转向产品经理,眼睛会转向,手指会指向。“我们怎么能让产品在没有X的情况下上市,而每个人似乎都想要X ?”为什么我们要浪费那么多时间和金钱来确保产品符合Y的要求,而这似乎没有人想要?”

Sure, this can happen even when the product manager is market-driven. Anyone can make a mistake.

当然,即使产品经理是市场驱动的,这种情况也会发生。任何人都可能犯错。

But that scenario is far less likely for the market-driven product manager, who will have either made sure the product does X or understand why it doesn’t; who will know why Y went into the product and what you need to do to ensure it’s not a waste of time.

但是这种情况对于市场驱动的产品经理来说是不太可能发生的,他们要么确保产品有X,要么理解为什么没有;他们知道为什么要生产这种产品,你需要做什么来确保它不会浪费时间。

The product manager should be the final authority—but that will happen only when he or she has earned the authority by being able to show the world—especially those loud-mouths/know-italls—what being market-driven is all about.

产品经理应该是最终的权威——但是只有当他或她通过向世界展示——尤其是那些大嘴巴/无所不知的人——市场驱动的全部意义而赢得了权威时,这才会发生。

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