【译文】资源欠缺,产品经理如何来做产品原型测试?(上)

本文观点仅供参考,不代表译者认同或支持该观点


Readers of these articles know that I view the high-fidelity prototype as the primary means of describing the product to be built. I have written elsewhere why a prototype is significantly more useful to the product team than the typical paper-based specification.  However, that is really the secondary benefit. The primary reasons to create a high-fidelity prototype are to help you gain a much deeper understanding of your product, and ultimately so that you can actually test your ideas with real users before you have your engineering team take months to go build something that you have no real evidence will serve its purpose.

读过我以前文章的读者都知道,我认为高保真原型是对将要构建的产品进行描述的主要方法。我已经在其他地方写过为什么原型比典型的基于纸张的规格对产品团队来说更有用。然而,这实际上只是次要作用。创建一个高保真原型的主要原因是有助于你更深入的了解你的产品,并且在你的工程团队因为缺乏实证而花了数月时间去构建产品之前,能够让你与真实的用户去测试你的想法,这才是它的目的。

In this article I will like to talk about how to actually do this prototype testing. I’ll warn you up front that this article is relatively long, but I will also say that testing your ideas with real users is probably the SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT ACTIVITY in your job as product manager.

在本文中,我将讨论如何实际地进行原型测试。我要预先提醒您,这篇文章相对较长,但我也要说,在实际用户中测试您的想法可能是您作为产品经理工作中最重要的活动。

If your company is large enough to have its own usability testing team, by all means secure as much of their time for your project as you absolutely can. Even if you cannot get much of their time, these people are terrific resources and if you can make a friend in user research or usability engineering, it is l be a huge help to you.

如果你的公司足够大,可以拥有自己的可用性测试团队,所有这些都意味着你要尽可能的保证他们为你的项目所投入的时间。即使你不能得到太多他们的时间,这些人是极好的资源,如果你能够交一些用户研究或可用性工程方面的朋友,这对你是一个巨大的帮助。

If your organization has funds earmarked for outside services, you may be able to use one of many excellent firms to conduct testing for you. But at the typical $10,000 – $20,000 per round of testing (typically around 10 users) that most firms charge, chances are that you won’t be able to afford as much of this testing as your product will need.

如果你的组织有专门用于外部服务的资金,你可以请许多优秀的公司之一来为您进行测试。但是,大多数公司对每轮测试(通常为10个用户)收取的费用通常在1万到2万美元之间,您可能无法负担你的产品所需的测试费用。

But if you are like most companies, you have few resources available and even less money. But you can’t let that stop you. It is absolutely essential that you test your ideas out with real users. It is arguably the single most important part of your job.

但如果你和大多数公司一样,你的资源很少,资金更少。但是你不应该因此而停止。在真实的用户中测试你的想法是绝对必要的。这可以说是你工作中最重要的部分。

So I will show you how to do this testing yourself. Don’t get me wrong, you won’t be as proficient as a trained usability engineer, and it will take you a few sessions to get the hang of it, but in most cases you will find that you can still identify the serious issues with your product, which is what is important.

我将向你们展示如何自己做这个测试。别误会我,你无需像一个训练有素的可用性工程师那样精通,你要花一些时间来掌握它的窍门,但在大多数情况下,你会发现你仍然可以确定你的产品中严重的问题,这才是重要的。

One thing to note is that while most people think of usability testing? (seeing if people can figure out how to actually use your product) I consider that just one type of testing.  You also need to test the desirability or usefulness of your product (do people actually want to use it?), and we will discuss both forms of testing here.

需要注意的是,当大多数人想到可用性测试时?(看看人们是否知道如何实际使用你的产品)我认为这只是一种测试。你还需要测试您的产品的合意性或有用性(人们真的想要使用它吗?),我们将在这里讨论这两种测试形式。


Finding Test Subjects

找到测试对象


Before you do the prototype testing, you will need to round up some test subjects. If you are using a lab they will recruit and schedule the users for you, which is a big help, but if you are on your own, you are got several options:

在进行原型测试之前,您需要收集一些测试对象。如果你使用实验室,他们会为你招募和安排用户,这是一个很大的帮助,但如果你是一个人,你有几个选择:

– If you are established a charter customer program?as I will described earlier, you should have quite a few readily available. If you haven‘t you should.

如果你建立了特许客户计划?正如我将在前面描述的,您应该有相当多的现成可用的对象。如果你没有,你应该。

– If you are doing a product for business, then trade shows are a great source of target customers.

如果你是在做企业类产品,那么贸易展是一个目标客户不错的来源。

– It is increasingly common to advertise for test subjects on Craigslist. If you do this, try to keep your participant description a notch more general than specific, and then screen on the general when you call them to talk about this.

– 在Craigslist(老汤注:克雷格列表网站,美国一个网上大型免费分类广告网站,58就是模仿的Craigslist)上刊登招聘测试对象的广告越来越普遍。如果你这样做,那么,要对你希望的参与者描述更笼统一些,而不要太具体,然后当你打电话和他们谈论这个的时候,你就会在总体上进行筛选。

– For consumer products, you can use your friends and family? Network ?just try to avoid people too close to you, and those in the tech industry, unless that is specifically your target, and be sure to use subjects from outside this network too.

– 对于消费品,你可以利用你的朋友和家人吗?尽量避免与你关系太近的人,以及那些在科技行业工作的人,除非他们是你的特别目标,并且一定要使用来自这个网络之外的对象。

– If you have a list of e-mail addresses of your users you can do a selection from there ?often your marketing team can help you narrow down the list.

– 如果你有用户的电子邮件地址列表,你可以从中进行选择,通常你的营销团队可以帮助你缩小列表范围。

– You can solicit volunteers on your web site ?lots of major sites do this now ?remember you will still call and screen the people to make sure you don‘t get a bunch of early adopter types.

– 你可以在你的网站上征集志愿者?现在很多主要的网站都这样做?记住,你仍然要给人们打电话并进行筛选,以确保你不会得到一群早期使用者。

– One technique I especially like is to set up regular prototype test sessions, say every other Friday, where you arrange for 10-20 or so users to come into your offices for a couple hours each, and then your product managers sign up for time slots, so a given user might test a couple prototypes each. I like this a lot because one person can do the logistics of invites and screening, and many PM will can count on a ready set of test users on an regular basis.

– 我特别喜欢的一种技术是建立定期原型测试会话,假定每隔一个周五,你安排10 – 20个左右的用户到你的办公室几个小时,然后你的产品经理报名参加,这样就可以让给定用户去测试几个原型。我非常喜欢这一点,因为一个人可以负责邀请和筛选的后勤工作,而许多PM可以定期依赖一组准备好的测试用户。

– You can always go to where your users congregate. If you are doing an e-commerce product, you may want to go to a mall. If you are doing a sports product, go to a sports bar. If your product is addressing a real need, you won’t have trouble getting people to give you an hour. Just bring gifts, and try not to look like you are trying to convert their religion.

– 你通常可以到达你的用户聚集的地方。如果你在做电子商务产品,你或许应该去商场。如果你在做体育产品,那就去体育酒吧。如果你的产品明确针对的是一个真正的需求,让别人给你一个小时是不会有困难的。带上礼物,尽量不要让人觉得你在试图改变他们的信仰。

– If you are asking users to come to your location ?especially for business use ?you will likely need to compensate the people for their time. If you are doing a consumer service sometimes a big sincere thanks along with a hat with your company logo on it will suffice, as people genuinely want to help in the creation of products, especially for companies they like. However, if you do compensate consider providing product like $50 of credit on your site.

– 如果你要求用户到你的位置?尤其是针对商业用途?你可能需要补偿人们的时间。如果你是做消费服务的,有时候一个大大的真诚的感谢加上一顶有你公司标志的帽子就足够了,因为人们真的想要帮助你创造产品,特别是为他们喜欢的公司。然而,如果你确实考虑补偿,那么,可以在你的网站提供像50美元的信用产品。

– Realize that there is a very high no-show rate when when you schedule people to come in. It’s just a fact. Sometimes as much as 30%.  But you can drop it to 5-10% if you give people a personal phone call the day before — even if you leave a voicemail.  Note that email does not work equally well.

– 当你安排别人来的时候,要意识到有很高的失约率。这是事实。有时高达30%。但如果你在前一天给别人打私人电话,即使你留了语音邮件,你也可以把这个比例降至5-10%。请注意,电子邮件并不同样有效。


Preparing The Test

准备测试


You will need to define the usability tasks you will want to test, and the interview questions concerning desirability:

你需要定义你想要测试的可用性任务,以及关于合意性的面试问题:

– You will need to define in advance the set of tasks that you want to test. Usually these are fairly obvious. If you are building an e-mail client, your users will need to do things like compose a message, read new mail, and file away messages. There will also be more obscure tasks, but concentrate on the primary tasks, the ones that users will do most of the time. If you have time, you can get to less common tasks but it isessential the key tasks are tested well.

– 你需要预先定义要测试的任务集。通常这些是相当明显的。如果你正在构建电子邮件客户端,那么你的用户将需要做一些事情,比如撰写消息、阅读新邮件和归档消息。还会有更多的模糊任务,但要专注于主要任务,也就是用户在大多数时间要做的任务。如果你有时间,你可以做一些不太常见的任务,但重要的是关键任务要经过测试。

– There is a one-time only opportunity you have with each user you test. That is the opportunity to learn how they think about this problem today.

– 对于你测试的每个用户,只有一次机会。这是一个了解他们今天如何看待这个问题的机会。

– If you are testing a new online restaurant rating service, rather than start them out at your prototype is home page, maybe you want to just start them out with an empty browser and see what they do. What review sites do they use today? Do they use Google or Yahoo will search to find the specific restaurant, or do they go to somewhere like OpenTable or Zagat? Do they search by neighborhood, by cuisine type, or price range?

– 如果您正在测试一个新的在线餐厅评级服务,那么,不要直接从你的原型主页开始,你或许要从一个空浏览器开始,看看他们是怎么做的。他们现在使用什么评论网站?他们是使用谷歌还是雅虎搜索来找到特定的餐厅,或者他们会去像OpenTable(老汤注:美国领先的网上订餐平台2014年被Priceline以26亿美元收购)或Zagat(老汤注:一家有着近 40 年历史的老牌餐饮点评公司,11年被谷歌收购,18年又被谷歌出售给了The Infatuation)这样的地方?他们会根据社区、烹饪类型或价格范围来搜索吗?

– This type of incredibly valuable information is missed if you jump right into your prototype, which will necessarily have quite a few assumptions built in. Once they play with your prototype they can tell you what they like better, but they won’t be thinking about the problem anymore the way a first-time visitor would.

– 如果直接进入原型,你就会错过这类非常有价值的信息,因为原型中必然有很多假设。一旦他们用了你的原型,他们可以告诉你他们更喜欢什么,但他们不会再像第一次访问那样思考问题。

– Of course, you will then want to get them to your prototype, but there is one more thing before you jump into your tasks. See if they can tell from the home page or landing page of your prototype what it is that you actually do, and especially what might be valuable or appealing to them. Again, once they jump into tasks they will ose that first time visitor context, so don’t waste the opportunity. You will find that landing pages are incredibly important to bridging the gap between expectations and what the site actually does.

– 当然,之后你会希望将它们放到原型中,但是在开始执行任务之前还有一件事。看看他们能否从你的原型的主页或登陆页上感觉出你实际上在做什么,特别是什么可能对他们有价值或有吸引力。再次,一旦他们进入到任务中,他们将失去第一次访问的环境,所以不要浪费机会。你会发现,登陆页面对于弥合期望和网站实际功能之间的差距非常重要。

– After you are seen if your user can figure out how to do the tasks you are testing, it is now the right time to have a conversation with this user. Think of it as a one-person focus group. Does the user use a different product or site today to do the same thing? Or is this something they do manually or off-line today? How much better is this than what they use today? And don’t forget to ask my favorite question: How likely would you be to recommend this product to your friends? Now that the user has interacted with your prototype they understand the topic and you can have an extremely useful dialog with them about this problem. Most importantly, you are trying to gauge how much this person values this product.

– 当你看到你的用户是否知道如何执行正在测试的任务之后,现在就是与该用户进行对话的最佳时机。把它想象成一个个人的焦点小组。用户今天是否使用不同的产品或站点来做相同的事情?或者这是他们今天手动或离线做的事情?这比他们现在用的好多少?别忘了问我最喜欢的问题:你有多大可能向你的朋友推荐这种产品?现在用户已经与你的原型交互,他们理解了主题,你可以与他们就这个问题进行非常有用的对话。最重要的是,你要衡量这个人对这个产品的重视程度。

– One technique I like for gauging value is to ask how much the user would be willing to pay for it, even if you have no intention of actually charging for use this way. It is a way to assess value and especially to track how the average value goes up or down over time as you change the prototype. Also, it is useful if you structure your questions so that the answer is on a scale, like 1-10. This is so that you can track the averages as they improve.

– 我喜欢的一种评估价值的方法是询问用户愿意为它支付多少钱,即使你并不想对这种使用方式真正收费。这是一种评估价值的方法,尤其是跟踪随着原型的改变,平均值如何随时间上升或下降。另外,如果你把问题组织成1-10分,这也很有用。这样你就可以跟踪平均值的变化。

– Note that you don’t have to wait until you have a complete prototype in order to begin testing. You can start with the main tasks, and it is ok if you have dead ends in the rest of the prototype. If the user wanders over to one of those dead ends, just ask, and what would you expect to happen if you did that??This is a great question whether you have that path laid out or not. If you do have it laid out, you can see if they match. And if you don’t, you will get important info about that direction anyway.

– 请注意,您不必等到你有一个完整的原型才开始测试。您可以从主要的任务开始,如果在原型的其余部分有死胡同也没关系。如果用户走到其中一个死胡同,就问一下,如果你这样做了,你希望会发生什么?这是一个很好的问题,无论你是否已经规划好了道路。如果你把它摆出来,你可以看看它们是否匹配。如果你不这样做,那么,你也会得到关于那个方向的重要信息。(未完待续

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