【译文】资源欠缺,产品经理如何来做产品原型测试?(下)

The Test Environment

测试环境


Here is how to prepare your test environment:

以下是如何准备你的测试环境:

– Formal testing labs will typically have set ups like two-way mirrors, or closed circuit video monitors, as well as cameras often capturing both the screen and the user from the front. Just know that while that is great if you have it, you do not need these things to have an extremely useful and valuable test.I can’t count how many prototypes I aretested at a tiny table at Starbucks just big enough for the laptop, with three chairs around the table. In fact, in some ways this is preferable to the testing lab because the user feels a lot less like a lab rat.

正式的测试实验室通常会设置双向镜或闭路视频监视器,以及通常从前方捕捉屏幕和用户的摄像头。你只需要知道,如果你有它,那当然很好,但你不需要这些东西来获得一个非常有用和有价值的测试。我数不清我在星巴克(Starbucks)的一张小桌子上测试了多少个原型,这张桌子刚好够放一台笔记本电脑,桌子周围有三把椅子。事实上,在某些方面,这比测试实验室更可取,因为会让用户感觉他们不太像实验室的老鼠。

– The other environment that works terrific is your customer is office.

另一个非常好的环境是你的客户的办公室。

It is time consuming to go there, but often even 30 minutes in their office will tell you a lot, and they are “master of their domain” and often very talkative. Also, all the cues are there to remind them of how they might use the product. You can also learn from seeing what their office looks like. How big is their monitor? How fast is their computer and network connectivity? How do they communicate with their colleagues on their work tasks?

去那里很费时间,但通常在他们的办公室30分钟就能告诉你很多东西,他们是“自己领域的主人”,而且通常很健谈。此外,所有的线索都在那里提醒他们如何使用产品。你也可以看看他们的办公室是什么样的。他们的显示器有多大?他们的计算机和网络连接有多快?他们如何与同事就工作任务进行沟通?

– There are tools for doing this type of testing remotely, but while you can see where their mouse is, and what the user is clicking on, it is not the same as looking at the person is eyes and body language, so again while the more testing the better, to me this is not a substitute for face-to-face testing.

有一些工具可以远程进行这种类型的测试,但是你可以看到他们的鼠标在哪里,用户在点击什么,对于看着人的眼睛和肢体语言,因此,虽然这样的测试越来越多,但对我来说,这并不能代替面对面的测试。

– As product manager, you need to make sure you are at every single test.

作为产品经理,你需要确保你参与了每一个测试。

Do not delegate this. Real value comes from experiencing as many users as possible, first hand, interacting with and responding to your ideas. Even if you use an outside firm to arrange and administer the tests, you need to be there with them during the testing.  No one else knows your product as well as you do, and you will have insights from watching the slightest hesitation or confused look, or the nuance of a question that reveals that they don’t understand the product model or a particular feature. What gets summarized for you by a proctor will probably miss 4 or 5 key insights.

不要委派这项工作。真正的价值来自于尽可能多的用户的体验,直接与你的想法进行交互和响应。即使你使用外部公司来安排和管理测试,你也需要在测试期间与他们在一起。没有人比你更了解你的产品,你会通过观察最轻微的犹豫或困惑的表情,或者一个问题的细微差别来了解他们不懂的产品模型或特定的特征。代理人为你总结的东西可能会漏掉4到5个关键的见解。

– Some people believe that the product manager (and the interaction designer) are too close to the product to do this type of testing objectively, and they may either get their feelings hurt, or only hear what they want to hear.  My view is that the good product managers and interaction designers get past this very quickly.  They know they will get the product wrong initially, and that almost nobody gets it right the first time, and they know that learning from these tests is the fastest path to a successful product.

有些人认为产品经理(和交互设计师)因为与产品太过亲密,所以不可能客观地进行这类测试,他们的感情可能会受到伤害,或者只听自己想听的话。我的观点是,优秀的产品经理和交互设计师很快就能克服这个问题。他们知道他们一开始会把产品做错,而且几乎没有人第一次就做对了,他们知道从这些测试中学习是通往成功产品的捷径。

– Ideally, you should have one person administer the tests, and another person taking notes. It is very useful to have someone to debrief with afterwards to make sure you both saw the same things and came to the same conclusions. That said, if it is just you and your laptop, and you are got a ready and willing target user in front of you, do it. It is all good.

理想情况下,你应该让一个人管理测试,另一个人做笔记。事后找个人汇报是非常有用的,这样可以确保你们看到的是相同的东西,得出的结论是相同的。也就是说,如果只有你和你的笔记本电脑,而你的目标用户就在你面前,那就去做吧。一切都很好。

– If you as product manager have a user researcher or usability engineer along with you, let him or her administer the test and you take notes.

如果你作为产品经理,身边有一个用户研究员或可用性工程师,让他或她管理测试,你做笔记。

Otherwise, you will probably be the one that administers. It is great to invite others on the product team to be your note taker.  Most often it will probably be the interaction designer, but the visual designer, developers and especially managers are all useful and they will get a lot out of it.

否则,你可能会成为管理者。邀请产品团队的其他人来做笔记是很好的。大多数情况下可能是交互设计师,但视觉设计师、开发人员,尤其是经理都是有用的,他们会从中得到很多。


Testing Your Prototype

测试原型


Now that you are got your prototype ready, you are lined up your test subjects, and you are prepared the tasks and questions, here are a set of tips and techniques for administering the actual testing:

现在你已经准备好了你的原型,你的测试对象,以及任务和问题,这里有一组提示和技巧来管理实际的测试:

– When you first sit down with the test subject, make sure to tell him or her that this is just a prototype, it is a very early product idea, and it is not real, they won’t be hurting your feelings, and you are testing the ideas in the prototype and most importantly you are not testing her. She can’t pass or fail ?only the prototype can pass or fail.

当你第一次和测试对象坐下来的时候,一定要告诉他或她,这只是一个原型,它是一个非常早期的产品理念,并不是真实的,他们不会伤害你的感情,你正在测试原型的想法,最重要的是你不是测试她。她不能通过或失败?只有原型可以通过或失败。

– Also, you should greet the person warmly and offer a coffee or something, but the sooner you get to the prototype the better. Tell them you will chat with them about this after they test the prototype, but you want to get their untainted impressions first.  Realize that the more you chat beforehand, the more clues you are giving away and the less of a true first impression your test subject can provide. If more than 5 minutes goes by without the user starting in on the prototype you are talking too much.

另外,你应该热情地问候对方,给他一杯咖啡或其他东西,但你越早进入到原型越好。告诉他们,你会在他们测试原型后与他们讨论这个问题,但你想先得到他们空白的印象。要意识到,你事先说的越多,你透露的线索就越多,你的测试对象能给你的第一印象就越少。如果超过5分钟的时间用户还没有开始使用原型,你就说得太多了。

– When testing, you will want to do everything you can to keep your users in ose mode?and out of critique mode.? What matters is whether users can easily do the tasks they need to do, and whether they value the product. It really does not matter if the user thinks something on the page is ugly or should be moved or changed. Sometimes misguided testers will ask users questions like chat three things on the page would you change? To me, unless that user happens to be an interaction designer, I will not really interested. If users knew what they really wanted, software would be a lot easier to create.  So watch what they do more than what they say.

在测试时,您会想尽一切办法让用户处于ose模式吗?走出批判模式。重要的是用户是否能够轻松地完成他们需要完成的任务,以及他们是否重视产品。如果用户认为页面上的内容很难看,或者应该移动或更改,这实际上并不重要。有时误入歧途的测试人员会问用户一些问题,比如聊天页面上有三件事你会改变吗?对我来说,除非那个用户碰巧是交互设计师,否则我不会真正感兴趣。如果用户知道他们真正想要的是什么,那么创建软件就会容易得多。所以注意他们做了什么,而不是说了什么。

– During the testing, the main skill you have to learn is to keep quiet.

在测试期间,你要学习的主要技能是保持安静。

Normally when we see someone struggle most of us have the urge to help the person out. You need to suppress that urge. You have to turn into a horrible conversationalist.  Get comfortable with silence.

通常,当我们看到别人挣扎时,我们大多数人都有帮助别人的冲动。你需要抑制这种冲动。你必须变成一个糟糕的健谈者。习惯沉默。

– There are three important cases you are looking for: the user got through the task with no problem at all and no help; the user struggled and moaned a bit but he eventually got through it; he got so frustrated he gave up. Sometimes people will give up pretty quick, so you may need to encourage them to keep trying a bit longer, but if he gets to the point that you believe he would truly leave the site and go to a competitor, then that is when you note that he truly gave up.

有三个重要的情况是你要寻找的:用户在没有任何问题,没有任何帮助的情况下完成任务;用户有斗争,有抱怨,但他最终克服了;他沮丧得放弃了。有时人们会放弃很快,所以你可能需要鼓励他们不断尝试一段时间,但如果你认为他真的会离开这个站点去寻求竞品,那你就会意识到他要真的放弃了。

– In general, you will want to avoid giving any help or leading the witness in any way. If you see the user scrolling the page up and down clearly looking for something, it is ok to ask the user what specifically he is looking for, as that is very valuable to you.  Some people ask users to keep a running narration of what they are thinking, but I find this tends to put people in critique mode, as it is not a natural behavior.

一般来说,你要避免以任何方式给予任何帮助或引导。如果您看到用户在页面上上下滚动,很明显是在寻找什么,那么可以询问用户他具体在寻找什么,因为这对您来说非常有价值。有些人要求用户不断地讲述他们的想法,但我发现这往往会让人们陷入批评模式,因为这不是一种自然的行为。

– Act like a parrot. This helps in many ways. First, it helps avoid leading. If they are quiet and you really can’t stand it because you are uncomfortable, tell them what they are doing: i see that you are looking at the list on the right.?This will prompt them to tell you what they are trying to do, looking for, whatever. If they ask you a question, rather than giving a leading answer you can play the question back to them, will clicking on this make a new entry you are wondering?if clicking on this will make a new entry and they will usually take it from there because they will want to answer your question:

鹦鹉学舌。这在很多方面都有帮助。首先,它有助于避免引导。如果他们很安静,你真的无法忍受,因为你不舒服,就会告诉他们在做什么:我看到你在看右边的列表。这将促使他们告诉你他们试图做什么,寻找什么,等等。如果他们问你一个问题,而不是给你一个引导的答案,你可以把问题回放给他们,点击这个会产生一个新的输入吗?你想知道点击这个是否会产生一个新的输入?他们通常会从那里开始,因为他们想要回答你的问题:

yeah, I think it will.? Parroting also helps avoid leading value judgments. If you have the urge to say great!? instead you can say, you created a new entry.?Finally, parroting key points also helps your note-taker because they have more time to write down important things.

是的,我想会的。鹦鹉学舌也有助于避免引导价值判断。如果你有说“太好了”的冲动!你可以说,你创建了一个新的输入。最后,死记硬背要点也有助于记笔记,因为他们有更多的时间记录下重要的事情。

– Fundamentally, you are trying to get an understanding of how your target users think about this problem, and to identify places in your prototype where the model the software presents is inconsistent or incompatible with how the user is thinking about the problem. That is what it means to be counter-intuitive. Fortunately, when you spot this it is usually not hard to fix, and can be a big win for your product.

从根本上说,您试图了解您的目标用户是如何看待这个问题的,并确定原型中软件模型与用户思考问题的方式不一致或不兼容的地方。这就是反直觉的意思。幸运的是,当你发现这个问题时,通常并不难解决,这对你的产品来说是一个巨大的胜利。

– You will find that you can tell a great deal from body language and tone. It is painfully obvious when they don’t like your ideas, and it is also clear when they genuinely do.  They will almost always ask for an e-mail when the product is out if they like what they see, and if they really like it, they will try to get it early from you. Recently I attended some prototype testing with one of my clients in Berlin, and even though I don’t speak German, it was obvious what the issues were, and which ideas worked well and which ones didn’t.

你会发现你可以从肢体语言和语调中看出很多东西。当他们不喜欢你的想法时,这种痛苦是显而易见的,当他们真正喜欢你的想法时,这种痛苦也是显而易见的。当产品出来时,如果他们喜欢他们看到的东西,他们几乎总是会要求发一封电子邮件,如果他们真的喜欢,他们会尽量早点从你那里得到。最近,我和我在柏林的一个客户一起参加了一些原型测试,尽管我不会说德语,但问题是什么是显而易见的,哪些想法行得通,哪些行不通。


Updating the Prototype

更新原型


The whole idea of this testing is to identify what you need to fix in the prototype to make it more useful and more usable. So as fast as possible, you will want to work to correct the problems:

这个测试的整个思想是确定您需要在原型中修复什么以使其更有用和更可用。所以要尽可能的快,你会想要纠正这些问题:

– Some people believe you have to freeze the prototype, the tasks and the questions for a complete round of testing (generally 6-8 users) before drawing any conclusions. I don’t think that is true, and have found that you can significantly accelerate this process of getting to a good product faster by responding more quickly to the feedback.

有些人认为,在得出任何结论之前,必须先冻结原型、任务和问题,进行一轮完整的测试(通常是6-8个用户)。我不认为这是真的,而且我发现你可以通过对反馈做出更快的反应来显著地加速这个过程,从而更快地得到一个好产品。

– You don’t have to be hit on the head by 8 users in a row to know you need to fix something big. So go ahead and fix it when you believe you are identified a problem, even if that is after only 2 or 3 users.

你不需要被8个用户连续击中脑袋去知道你需要解决一些大问题。所以,当你认为你发现了一个问题时,就去修复它,即使那只是在2个或3个用户之后。

The harder question is when you are done.Generally, if you can get through 6 consecutive users where they understand and appreciate the value, and they can get through the key tasks, you are in good shape and you are done your job.

更难的问题是什么时候完成。一般来说,如果你能找到6个连续的用户,他们理解并欣赏你的价值,他们能完成关键任务,那么你就处于一个不错的状态了,你的工作也完成了。

– You might determine that you just aren’t able to get people interested in this problem, or figure out a way to make this usable enough that your target users can realize that value.  In this case, you may decide to stop there and put the idea on the shelf.  Some product managers consider this a big failure. I view it as saving the company the wasted cost of building and shipping this product, plus the opportunity cost of what your engineering team could be building instead.

你可能会认为你无法让人们对这个问题感兴趣,或者无法找到一种方法使其足够可用,以便你的目标用户能够实现该价值。在这种情况下,你可能决定就此打住,把这个想法束之高阁。一些产品经理认为这是一个巨大的失败。我认为这节省了公司建造和交付这个产品而浪费掉的成本,再加上你的工程团队可以建造的机会成本。

This whole process might sound complicated or difficult, but the remarkable thing is just how easy and effective it actually is. The best way to prove this to yourself is to take your laptop with your product or prototype on it to someone that hasn’t seen it yet and just give it a try.

整个过程听起来可能复杂或困难,但值得注意的是它实际上是多么简单和有效。向你自己证明这一点的最好方法是把你的笔记本电脑和你的产品或原型带到那些还没见过它的人那里去试一试。

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