【推荐】明年面试和求职,有这几道题就够了—产品管理主管的10个面试问题和建议

Product Manager Interview Questions

1、Prioritization – You need to prioritize between Project A and Project B. Tell me your process or methodology for choosing the best one?

确定优先级——你需要在项目A和项目b之间确定优先级。请告诉我你选择最佳项目的过程或方法。

2、How to Approach a Problem – We are trying to determine if we should run Google Ads on our eCommerce site. How would you go about making that decision?

如何处理问题——我们正在尝试决定是否应该在我们的电子商务网站上运行谷歌广告。你会如何做出决策呢?

3、Typical Roadmap Presentation – What does a typical roadmap presentation consist of?

典型的路线图呈现——典型的路线图呈现由什么组成?

4、The Last Time You Said No – When was the last time you said NO to a persistent feature request from a big customer/investor, and why?

你最后一次拒绝——你最后一次拒绝大客户/投资者的持续特征请求是什么时候,为什么?

5、Motivating Your Team – How have you gotten your team motivated and passionate about solving a specific problem or building a new user journey?

激励你的团队——你是如何让你的团队在解决一个特定的问题或建立一个新的用户旅程时充满动力和激情的?

6、Convincing Leadership – Tell me about a time when they needed to convince their leadership team to invest in a new initiative.

说服领导——告诉我一个他们需要说服领导团队投资一个新项目的事例。

7、Five Minute Career Summary – Take five minutes to walk through your career from your first job to your current job. What did you accomplish and why did you leave?

五分钟职业生涯总结——花五分钟时间回顾一下你从第一份工作到目前这份工作的职业生涯。你完成了什么?为什么离开?

8、One Word That Describes You – Pick one word that describes you.

用一个词来形容你——选一个形容你的词。

9、First Day Agenda – What will you do on the first day of this Product Management job?

第一天议程——你在做产品管理工作的第一天会做什么?

10、Getting Out of Hot Water – Tell me about the hottest water you have ever got yourself into with a customer, how you fixed it, and what you learned.

摆脱困境——告诉我你遇到过的最棘手的问题,你是如何解决的,以及你学到了什么。


Here’s Our Top 10


1、Prioritization

Craig Cotton, VP Marketing and Product Management at Impinj(老汤注:英频杰公司是全球最领先的超高频Gen 2RFID解决方案供应商), likes to pose a simple scenario: You need to prioritize between Project A and Project B. Tell me your process or methodology for choosing the best one?

Impinj的市场营销和产品管理副总裁Craig Cotton喜欢提出一个简单的场景:你需要在项目a和项目b之间划分优先级。请告诉我你选择最佳项目的过程或方法。

Answer:

Most interviewees offer a simple answer and say they would try to understand the market and choose the one with the highest revenue, neglecting many factors that go into these decisions.

大多数面试者给出了一个简单的答案,并表示他们会努力了解市场并选择收益最高的,而忽略了许多影响决策的因素。

The ideal answer is something like this: First I would start with the company’s strategies and goals to see if A or B is better aligned. Next, I would try and understand the TAM and SAM for both projects to see which one offers more attractive growth. Then, I would investigate the engineering investment required for both.

理想的答案是这样的:首先,我将从公司的战略和目标开始,看看A或B哪一个更接近。接下来,我将试着理解这两个项目的TAM(Total Available Market,市场总量)和SAM(Sales Available Market,可销售市场),看看哪个项目提供了更有吸引力的增长。然后,我将调查两者所需的工程投资。

Knowing A is higher revenue is not enough. What if it requires twice the number of engineers? This would give me an Economic Value Add type of approach, or revenue over effort measure.

知道A有更高的收益是不够的。如果它需要两倍的工程师怎么办?这将给我提供一种经济附加值的方法,或收入大于努力的度量。

Along the way, I would make sure that the company’s sales team and channels are going to support the choice to sell A or B. Once done we would have the data we would need to stare at to then make a good business decision.

在此过程中,我将确保公司的销售团队和渠道会支持销售A或B的选择。一旦完成,我们将拥有需要的数据,然后做出良好的商业决策。

问题启发:

1)别一说到优先级,就首先想到产品,对于产品经理而言,需求分三级:商业级;业务级;产品级,先搞定商业级的需求优先级才能确定后面的,面试的时候不妨多问问产品经理的商业、业务知识。

2)各级需求优先级的确定是应该是有一套标准的流程和方法的,面试的时候不妨多问问面试者是否有清晰的思路和优先级划分标准。

2、How to Approach a Problem

Similarly, David Grubman, VP Product at myFinancialAnswers(老汤注:myFinancialAnswers是一家提供家庭金融规划和财务策略的公司), wants to understand how a candidate would approach a problem, what steps they cover, and how much time they address to each step.

同样,myFinancialAnswers的产品副总裁大卫•格鲁曼(David Grubman)希望了解面试者如何处理一个问题,他们涉及哪些步骤,以及他们为每个步骤花费多少时间。

Here are his typical examples: We are trying to determine if we should run Google Ads on our eCommerce site. How would you go about making that decision? Or, we have a low NPS(Net Promoter Score,净推荐值) with one of our products. How would you go about addressing it?

以下是他的典型例子:我们正试图决定是否应该在我们的电子商务网站上运行谷歌广告。你会怎么做决定呢?或者,某个产品的NPS很低。你会如何着手解决这个问题?

Answer:

I am looking for the candidate to go broad and provide a thoughtful, detailed response.

我希望求职者能走得更远,并提供一个深思熟虑的、详细的回应。

问题启发:

1)同样,对于企业来说,非常希望听到产品经理是否有一个清晰的方法论,比方说这道题中所问到的关于如何处理一个市场的问题,这再次说明,产品经理所做的任何一个工作,大到商业模式构建,小到市场问题分析,都需要有科学且清晰的方法来落地。

3、Typical Roadmap Presentation

Ajay Awatramani, Director of Product Management at Marketo(老汤注:Marketo是美国上市的SaaS软件公司,起家做自动化营销系统,成立于2006年,2013年在美国纳斯达克上市,上市前融资到F轮,总融资1.03亿美金。2018年被赫赫有名的Adobe公司收购,收购价格48亿美金), likes to ask what a typical roadmap presentation consist of. He asks candidates to take an example and break it down for him.

Marketo公司产品管理总监阿贾伊·阿瓦拉马尼(Ajay Awatramani)喜欢问一个典型的路线图演示包括哪些内容。他要求面试者举一个例子,并为他分解。

Answer:

Ajay expects a candidate’s answer to cover all angles of a roadmap presentation including:

Ajay希望候选人的回答涵盖路线图演示的所有角度,包括:

Customer feedback

客户反馈

Industry trends

行业趋势

Competitive SWOT analysis

竞争SWOT分析

Analyst – Gartner/Forrester perspective

分析者-盖特纳/佛瑞斯特的视角

Emergent themes

紧急的主题

Priority requirements by theme

基于主题的需求优先级

Success metrics

成功的标准

Release plan

发布规划

问题启发:

1)不知道有多少产品经理真的在做产品路线图,咱们有定义:

产品路线图就是用来对产品愿景和商业目标进行规划和定义的一种用于和利益相关人交流和沟通的战略性工具。目的在于制定广泛的目标并提供实现这些目标所需的步骤。

对于面试官而言,与其泛泛的问产品战略是什么,不如问问怎么来做产品路线图,知道怎么做产品路线图的产品经理,一定知道怎么去落地产品战略。

2)巧了,咱们的《构建产品经理个人知识体系学习包》中就有这个小包课,让你们学习,不学,面试的时候抓瞎了吧。

4、The Last Time You Said No

Mathew Varghese, Director of Product Management at Citrix(老汤注:美国思杰公司,是一家致力于云计算虚拟化、虚拟桌面和远程接入技术领域的高科技企业。现在流行的BYOD(Bring Your Own Device自带设备办公)就是Citrix公司提出的), asks candidates when was the last time they said NO to a persistent feature request from a big customer/investor, and why?

Citrix的产品管理总监Mathew Varghese问求职者,他们最后一次拒绝大客户/投资者的持续特征要求是什么时候,为什么?

Answer:

This question gives him a good insight into the candidate’s commitment to growing the product/business versus growing an account. It also gives him a good insight into their business acumen and negotiation skills.

这个问题让他很好地了解了求职者是致力于发展产品/业务还是拓展客户。这也让他对他们的商业头脑和谈判技巧有了很好的了解。

While there is no right answer, he often prefers a candidate who puts up a good fight with noisy customers.

虽然没有正确答案,但他通常更喜欢与吵闹的顾客进行激烈斗争的面试者。

问题启发:

1)既然无法满足所有客户的需求,那么,不如放弃一些客户,说起来容易,但做起来真难,产品经理在面对这样决策的时候,没有一些操作技巧是肯定做不到的。

2)再强调一次,商业头脑,商业头脑,商业头脑,产品经理要是没有这个素养,算了吧!

5、Motivating Your Team

Steve Pollock, VP of Product Management at Ebates(老汤注:Ebates是美国知名的海淘返利网站,为用户提供海淘购物解决方案), asks candidates how they have gotten their team motivated and passionate about solving a specific problem or building a new user journey. This question is posed with context around a particular area, like front end, back end, analytics, etc.

Ebatates公司产品管理副总裁史蒂夫•波洛克(Steve Pollock)询问求职者,他们是如何让团队充满动力和激情地解决特定问题或建立新的用户旅程的。这个问题是在特定领域的背景下提出的,如前端、后端、分析等

Answer:

With this question, Steve is looking for an articulation about how a candidate self-motivates, and then about how they understand the motivations of others and use that to find ways to inspire them. So a very good answer to this has two or three parts.

通过这个问题,Steve想知道候选人如何自我激励,以及他们如何理解他人的动机,并以此来找到激励他们的方法。一个很好的答案有两三个部分。

问题启发:

1)产品经理需要带领一个团队来完成产品目标,这个团队可能很大,涉及企业内各个业务部门,如何调动和激励这个团队的积极性,这是个很有挑战性的工作。

2)对于企业来说,面试的时候不妨设计几道现实的团队管理的问题,让面试者说说他们的思路,尤其是对于不同脾气秉性,工作风格团队成员的心态分析和管理思路的构建。

6、Convincing Leadership

Travis Kaufman, VP of Product Management at Leadspace(老汤注:LeadSpace是一个预测分析平台,能够帮助中大型B2B软件公司计算或学习更多关于客户的信息), asks a similar soft-skill question when he asks candidates to tell him about a time when they needed to convince their leadership team to invest in a new initiative.

Leadspace产品管理副总裁特拉维斯•考夫曼(Travis Kaufman)也会问一个类似的软技能问题,当他让面试者讲述他们需要说服领导层投资一个新项目的例子。

Answer:

With this question, Travis is looking for experience influencing without authority and for the type of information a candidate uses to build their argument.

通过这个问题,特拉维斯正在寻找没有权威的影响经验,以及面试者用来建立他们论点的信息类型。

Hint: the more customer and market problem centric, the better.

提示:越以客户和市场问题为中心,效果越好。

问题启发:

1)Hint里已经说的很到位了,一切以客户和市场问题为中心,这才是产品经理该有的工作基准。

7、Five Minute Career Summary

Vito Salvaggio, VP of Product Management at Loggly(老汤注:loggly 是一个企业级的商业管理工具,它基于云端的日志处理服务,可以将机器生成日志文档、并整理为可进行搜索的格式), asks candidates to take five minutes to walk him through their career from their first job to their current job. What did they accomplish and why did they leave?

Loggly产品管理副总裁Vito Salvaggio要求求职者花5分钟时间介绍他们从第一份工作到现在这份工作的职业生涯。他们完成了什么?他们为什么离开?

Answer:

This question seems easy enough to answer, but it is a revealing test of the candidate’s listening skills. He wants to know if they can they fit the answer in the time requested and can they communicate/tell a story.

这个问题看起来很容易回答,但它却是对面试者聆听能力的一个考验。他想知道他们是否能在要求的时间内给出答案,他们能否沟通/讲一个故事。

问题启发:

1)产品经理的面试真的是处处是陷阱,看起来是让你讲一下你的职业生涯,其实考察的是你能否在5分钟的时间内把你职业生涯中的关键信息进行组合,排练和发布的过程,直接考察了产品经理能否“听懂”关键信息,能否“说清”关键结果的能力,很有现实意义。

2)建议企业使用。

8、One Word That Describes You

Robert Green, Director of Product Management at Tableau Software(老汤注:一家开发交互式数据可视化产品的商业智能软件公司), asks candidates to pick one word that describes them.

Tableau Software产品管理总监罗伯特•格林(Robert Green)要求求职者选出一个可以描述自己的词。

Answer:

All too common Robert hears the boring answer: “Creative” “Driven” “Focused”. He likes to be surprised by this answer because many hiring managers have already formed an opinion or impression on the word that would describe the candidate.

罗伯特听到的答案很无聊:“有创造力”、“驱动力”、“专注”。他喜欢听到这个答案时感到惊讶,因为许多招聘经理已经对用来描述求职者的词形成了一种看法或印象。

A good response he recently heard was “Resolable”. That’s not a word, but the candidate said, “I’m Results-Driven, I Solve Problems, and I’m Responsible.” The candidate made a word up that was a combination of three other phrases to highlight themself.

他最近听到的一个不错的回答是“Resolable(可解决的)”。那不是一个词,但这位求职者说:“我是结果导向型的人,我解决问题,我有责任心。”应聘者用另外三个短语组合造了一个词来突出自己。

问题启发:

1)产品经理整个群体有什么样的特质,或许没有人能说清,但是具体到个人上,如果你连自己做产品经理的特质都说不清,那企业怎么知道你是否适配他们的企业特质呢?

2)去面试之前,好好对自己做个总结,用简短的几个词汇来描述一下自己,万一遇到这样的问题呢?

9、First Day Agenda

Ron Kaplan, Manager, Technical Product Management at Symitar(老汤注:Symitar是为各种规模的信用合作社提供集成计算机系统的领先供应商,纳斯达克上市公司), asks candidates what they will do on the first day of this Product Management job.

Symitar公司技术产品管理经理罗恩•卡普兰(Ron Kaplan)问求职者,他们在从事产品管理工作的第一天会做些什么。

Answer:

This question informs him about the way in which one approaches the adventure ahead. Will the candidate focus on building relationships or learn the technical stuff?

这个问题让他知道了一个人如何面对未来的冒险。求职者会专注于建立关系还是学习技术?

问题启发:

1)这个问题没有标准答案,问题的核心在于企业想知道你会如何尽快的融入到新的平台中,并用你认为合适的方式把工作开展起来。

10、Getting Out of Hot Water

The last question is from an anonymous Director of Product Management who likes to ask candidates to tell him about the hottest water they ever got themselves into with a customer, how they fixed it, and what they learned.

最后一个问题是一位不愿透露姓名的产品管理总监提出的,他喜欢让求职者告诉他,他们曾经遇到过怎样的麻烦,他们是如何解决的,以及他们学到了什么。

Answer:

This hiring manager finds the best candidates do not need prompting for those last two questions. They have one or two examples they are proud of taking from near-disaster to success and they have made the lesson(s) integral to their whole business approach.

这位招聘经理发现,最优秀的求职者不需要回答最后两个问题。他们有一两个引以为傲的从灾难走向成功的例子,并将这些经验教训融入到整个商业途径中。

The “you got yourself into” part is key. Some candidates choose examples of another’s misstep they’ve fixed. But this manager is looking first for accountability. So the next question is: How about something YOU did that you had to make right? It’s a rare save at this stage if “how I fixed it and what I learned” are offered without prompting. The hiring manager is still wondering whether you listen carefully or prefer an easy out, but at least expects you might understand why the question was asked.

“你让自己进入”是关键。有些面试者会选择别人犯错的例子。但这位经理首先要寻求的是问责制。所以下一个问题是:你做过什么你必须纠正的事情呢?在这个阶段,如果没有提示就提供“我如何改正它以及我学到了什么”,这是一种罕见的保存方式。招聘经理仍然想知道你是会认真倾听还是想轻松回答,但他至少希望你能理解这个问题被问到的原因。

What fascinates this hiring manager is how many candidates will respond that they cannot think of a single example, even when he double-checks asking: So you’ve never made a mistake? But, by then this interview is over. He trusts his hires implicitly, so he needs to know they will hold themselves accountable first.

让这位招聘经理感兴趣的是,许多求职者会回答他们想不出一个例子,即使他反复检查问:“所以你从来没有犯过错误?”但是,到那时面试已经结束了。他完全信任他的员工,所以他需要知道他们首先会对自己负责。

The candidates who are tough on themselves, but positive about the outcome, make his/her job so much easier.

那些对自己要求严格,但对结果持乐观态度的求职者,会让他/她的工作变得容易得多。

问题启发:

1)产品经理想走出自己的路,向第三方学习只是一个辅助,关键还是要在“战争中学习战争”,成功的经验要总结,失败的教训更要总结,正所谓,成功的产品都是一样的,失败的产品各有各的不同,企业希望听到你从失败中学到了什么,因为这意味着你是否在真正成长。

2)对于企业来说,要对产品经理的失败有足够的容忍,当然,要是再有一点耐心能够让他们成长起来,真的,这样的企业绝对值得入手。


最后要说的话

以上十道问题是国外某机构针对一些企业招聘产品经理时问到的频次最多的问题,我不能说这些问题就一定好,或不好,但至少给了企业和求职者一个启发,就是:

在这些问题中,我们可以从另一个角度了解到国外的企业真正关注产品经理的哪些方面,至少从这十道题中可以看出,他们更多关注的是产品经理的商业/业务思维、工作方法论,团队管理、学习能力等等这些软性能力,这正好和我了解到的国内招聘产品经理的面试题大相径庭,当我们很多的企业在问你知道Axure里面某个函数怎么用的时候,问你知道如何设计某某原型的时候,问你知道怎么来设计一个功能的时候…….

或许,我们这些中国的产品经理已经输了一局了!

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