霍洛维茨又点评产品经理了—好的BPM和糟糕的BPM都有哪些特征

本文为译文,内容仅供大家学习参考,译者对作者观点不持任何态度

A good product manager generally has a keen instinct for human behavior. However, the best product managers have learned how to incorporate the science of human behavior in a more rigorous way than just relying on instinct. This post (with a nod from Ben Horowitz’s seminal post) introduces the idea of a behavioral product manager (BPM) – a product manager who integrates the science and methods of behavioral science into product design, and discusses the traits of good BPMs and bad BPMs.

一个好的产品经理通常对人类的行为有着敏锐的直觉。然而,然而,最好的产品经理已经学会了如何以一种更严格的方式结合人类行为的科学,而不仅仅是依靠本能。这篇文章(由本霍洛维茨的开创性文章)介绍了行为产品经理(BPM)的想法——产品经理将行为科学的科学和方法整合到产品设计中,并讨论了良好的BPMs和糟糕的BPMs的特征。


A Good Behavioral Product Manager Applies Basic Human Behavior Principles to Product Principles

一个好的BPM将基本的人类行为原则应用到产品原则中


A good BPM understands that humans have systematic irrationalities. They seek to understand these irrationalities and build for them.

一个好的BPM明白人类有系统的非理性。他们试图理解这些不合理的地方,并为之而努力。

A good BPM knows that their users do not have fixed preferences. They know their users make different decisions depending on the design and context of an experience.

一个好的BPM知道他们的用户没有固定的偏好。他们知道用户依赖于体验的设计和背景而做出不同的决定。

A good BPM is not afraid to be paternalistic. They understand that giving users all the choices and information can be burdensome rather than welcome. They believe it’s their job to make decisions easier and this sometimes means making decisions in the best interests of the user.  (See last point on good vs evil: a good BPM has reason to believe the behavior they are encouraging improves the welfare of their customers).

一个好的BPM并不害怕成为家长式的作风。他们明白,给用户提供所有的选择和信息可能是一种负担,而不是欢迎。他们认为,让决策变得更容易是他们的工作,而这有时意味着为了用户的最大利益做出决策。(参见“好与坏”的最后一点:一个好的BPM有理由相信他们所鼓励的行为会改善他们的客户的福利)。

A good BPM knows users make different decisions if they are deciding for today’s self (now) or tomorrow’s self (future me).

一个好的BPM知道,用户会根据是否做出有利于自己的决定而做出不同的决策。

A good BPM understands that habit formation is extremely tough. They know that it’s much easier to have the user make a one-time decision that automates their usage and value extraction than to insert their product into the user’s life on a daily basis and ask them to log in/perform a new action every day.

一个好的BPM知道习惯的形成是非常困难的。他们知道,让用户做出一次性的决定,自动使用和提取价值,而不是每天将他们的产品插入到用户的生活中,并要求他们每天登录/执行一个新动作,这要容易得多。

A good BPM is able effectively to communicate, educate, and translate behavioral science insights for the engineering and design team. They ensure every person on the team is tuned into the small details of an experience and asks each other for the behavioral insights to justify small and large product and design decisions. There is a shared language, focused on details.

一个好的BPM能够同工程和设计团队有效地沟通、教育和翻译行为科学的见解。他们确保团队中的每一个人都能看到经验的小细节,并要求对方提供行为洞察力,以证明小而大的产品和设计决策是合理的。他们有一种共享的语言,专注于细节。

A bad BPM builds for a persona or the ideal customer behavior rather than the actual user behavior. A bad BPM inundates the user with information or features, without any assistance or help, because they believe the user has enough time and expertise and also wants to make most decisions by themselves. They assume the user prioritizes their product as much as they do. A bad BPM does not appreciate the power of framing and context to drive behavior change. They do not acknowledge that people have difficulty making choices that benefit their long-term self-interest. A bad BPM does not fully internalize the power they have over the user and sees them as an engine to drive product metrics.

一个糟糕的BPM构建的是一个角色或理想的客户行为,而不是实际的用户行为。一个糟糕的BPM会用没有任何支持或帮助的信息或特性把用户淹没,因为他们相信用户有足够的时间和专业知识,并且希望自己做出大多数决定。他们设想用户对他们产品的重视程度和他们一样多。一个糟糕的BPM不喜欢结构化和环境驱动行为改变的能力。他们不承认,人们很难做出有利于自身长期利益的选择。一个糟糕的BPM并没有完全将其对用户的影响力内在化,并将其视为驱动产品指标的引擎。


A Good Behavioral Product Manager Focuses on Behavior Change

一个好的行为产品经理关注的是行为改变


A good BPM is ruthless about identifying and prioritizing a key behavior – what uncomfortably specific action they want the user to do (rather than a generic action like ‘log in’*). For example, if they are building an online education platform, they may define the ideal key behavior in concrete terms like, “Add online course schedule to their calendar, right after signing up for the course” or “Get to min 30 or 40 in their first online course.”

一个好的BPM在识别和确定关键行为的优先级方面是无情的——他们希望用户呈现的是令其不适的具体活动(而不是像“登录”这样的通用操作)。例如,如果他们正在建立一个在线教育平台,他们可以用具体的术语来定义理想的关键行为,比如“在他们的日历上添加在线课程时间表,在课程注册之后”或者“在他们的第一个在线课程中达到30或40分钟。”

The good BPM ensures that all team members have input and agree with this specific key behavior. They work to ensure all team members are actively using it to drive their priorities.  A good BPM formulates a research plan around this key behavior, has appropriate data tracking metrics for this key behavior and is open to change the key behavior when it stops driving business growth as expected.

好的BPM确保所有的团队成员都有输入并同意这个特定的关键行为。他们的工作是确保所有的团队成员都在积极地使用它来驱动他们的优先级。一个好的BPM会围绕这个关键行为制定一个研究计划,为这个关键行为提供适当的数据跟踪指标,并在关键行为停止如预期那样推动业务增长时,开放地改变关键行为。

A bad BPM  focuses on generic and short-term product measures over behaviors. They value the act of logging in* or time spent and not what someone does when they log in.  For example, it is common to hear a bad BPM say they want users to view their dashboard. This bad BPM values exposing their user to information vs having the user act on that information. The bad product manager articulates a key behavior that is broad and general vs uncomfortably specific. They may say something like, “Help the user finish the online course” or “We want them to try out different courses”.  You can quickly figure out if the behavior is too broad by asking everyone on the team what they think the key behavior is. If everyone says different things, the behavioral product manager has failed.

一个糟糕的BPM关注的是对行为的一般和短期产品度量。他们重视登录的行为或花费的时间,而不是某人登录时所做的事情。例如,经常听到一个糟糕的BPM说他们希望用户查看他们的仪表盘。这个糟糕的BPM评价的是向用户呈现他们的信息,而不是基于信息的操作。糟糕的产品经理阐明了一个宽泛的、笼统的、令人不安的具体行为。他们可能会说,“帮助用户完成在线课程”或者“我们想让他们尝试不同的课程”。你可以通过询问团队中的每个人他们认为关键行为是什么,快速地找出行为是否过于宽泛。如果每个人都说不同的话,BPM就失败了。


A Good Behavioral Product Manager Reviews Existing Research

一个好的BPM回顾现有的研究


A good BPM will assume they are not the first person to identify a customer insight or product opportunity.

一个好的BPM将假定他们不是第一个识别客户洞察或产品机会的人。

When investigating a new problem, they will not start with original research or new features. They will seek out existing academic literature/case studies to not reinvent the wheel.

在调查一个新问题时,他们不会从最初的研究或新特征开始。他们将寻求现有的学术文献/案例研究,以避免重新发明轮子。

They will question their own intuition on the problem and solution – and their team’s intuition. When someone says “we tried that before and it didn’t work” they will ask to see the data as proof. They will not reference their personal experiences as justification for a feature request.

他们会质疑自己对问题和解决方案的直觉——以及他们团队的直觉。当有人说“我们以前尝试过,但它不起作用”时,他们会要求把这些数据作为证据。他们不会引用他们的个人经历作为所需特征的理由。

They will listen to customer interviews and focus groups but remain skeptical that people’s attitudes, beliefs and perceptions will translate into actual behavior. The good product manager is constantly thinking about the “say/do” dilemma.

他们会倾听客户的访谈和焦点小组,但仍然怀疑人们的态度、信仰和看法是否会转化为实际的行为。好的产品经理总是在思考“说/做”的困境。

A bad BPM does not use data-driven insights to drive their research agenda or product prioritization. A bad BPM does not conduct a literature review prior to writing product requirements. They consistently let original qualitative research drive prioritization on the roadmap.

一个糟糕的BPM不会利用数据驱动的洞察力来驱动他们的研究议程或产品优先级。在编写产品需求之前,一个糟糕的BPM不会进行文献回顾。他们一直让原始的定性研究在路线图上推动优先级排序。


A Good Behavioral Product Manager Takes Data Instrumentation VERY Seriously

一个好的BPM非常重视数据仪表


A good BPM will prioritize logging and testing infrastructure – the tools for understanding – over new product features.  In fact, they will likely choose to delay a launch in order to put in a testing system.

一个好的BPM将优先记录和测试基础设施——理解的工具——而不是新产品特征。事实上,他们可能会选择推迟发布,以便安装一个测试系统。

They promote a team culture that is unforgivingly meticulous about data integrity, test methodology and tracking actions the user takes in the product.

他们提倡一种团队文化,这种文化对数据完整性、测试方法和用户在产品中所采取的跟踪行动都是不可获取的。

A good BPM will have a data / logging QA process they follow rigorously. They never launch a feature without first testing that the data collection works as specced.

一个好的BPM将有一个严格遵循的数据/日志QA流程。如果没有先测试数据收集是否符合规范,他们就不会发布新特征。

A bad BPM puts off building testing frameworks and capabilities into the core functionality. They reference their own or their network’s experience as proof that a feature or idea is worth prioritizing. They get surprised when the logging didn’t work or the key outcome can’t be measured without more engineering work.

一个糟糕的BPM把构建测试框架和能力放到核心功能中。他们引用自己或网络的经验来证明某个功能或想法值得优先考虑。如果,或者在没有更多的工程工作的情况下关键结果无法测量,他们就会感到惊讶。


A Good Behavioral Product Manager Displays Experimentation Rigor

一个好的行为产品经理展示了实验的严密性


A good BPM is religious about experimentation.

一个好的BPM在实验上是虔诚的。

They understand that behavior is hard to change.  Because of this, they seek proof that a feature/change will produce the intended results.

他们明白,行为很难改变。正因为如此,他们寻求证据,证明一个特征/改变将产生预期的结果。

They use experimentation to understand why something works or doesn’t work, which gives them confidence to build a long-term roadmap and strategy from the results.

他们用实验来理解为什么有些东西是有效的,或者是行不通的,这让他们有信心从结果中建立一个长期的路线图和策略。

A good BPM is ruthless about the experimental control condition. Once they decide to invest valuable resources to conduct an experiment, they do not compromise on the experimental design. They insist that the control must isolate the key variable, even if it degrades the customer experience. They understand they are trading off a small number of current customers for an improved experience for future customers.

一个好的BPM对实验控制条件是无情的。一旦他们决定投入宝贵的资源进行实验,他们就不会在实验设计上妥协。他们坚持控制程序必须隔离关键变量,即使它降低了客户体验。他们明白,他们正在与少量的现有客户进行权衡,以改善未来客户的体验。

A good BPM ensures random assignment and avoids self selection. Everyone in the experiment should be equally likely  to end up in the control.  When relevant, they ask their data team to double and triple check the randomization to ensure it’s truly random.

一个好的BPM可以确保随机分配,避免自我选择。实验中的每个人都应该有同样的可能最终得到控制。当有重大关系的时候,他们要求他们的数据团队进行双倍的检查,并对随机化进行检查,以确保它是真正随机的。

A good BPM documents the experimental conditions such that design and engineering understands the key question and hypothesis.

一个好BPM记录了设计和工程理解关键问题和假设的实验条件。

The good BPM publishes the team’s hypothesis on which version will win, their assumptions on sample size, conversion, effect size and how long the experiment will run. They ask the data team to publish their data analysis plan prior to launching.

好的BPM发布了团队关于哪个版本将获胜的假设,他们对样本大小、转换、效果大小以及实验运行时间进行假设。他们要求数据团队在发布之前发布他们的数据分析计划。

A good BPM packages and promotes both successful and failed experiments so the rest of the company (or public) can learn from the investment. They believe in systematic results reporting and are unafraid to loudly communicate lessons learned from “failures”.

一个好的BPM,封装并促进成功和失败的实验,这样公司的其他成员(或公众)就可以从中学习。他们相信有系统的结果报告,并且不害怕大声地交流从“失败”中吸取的教训。

A bad BPM does not think about the difference between correlation and causation. They frequently and confidently misattribute feature changes to causation (the new feature worked because of our design) when there was no controlled experiment to show this. A bad BPM compromises on the experimental control in favor of short term business results. They keep a test running until it gets to statistical significance vs declaring a target sample size. A bad BPM does not articulate the experimental conditions and detailed hypothesis to the design and engineering team. This results in multiple revisions and meetings (and possibly future resentment of experimentation given how much time it takes). A bad BPM doesn’t celebrate a null result and the fact that they saved the company money by not over-investing in an ineffective feature.

一个糟糕的BPM不会考虑相关性和因果关系的区别。当没有对照实验来证明这一点时,他们经常和自信地错误地将特征改变归因于因果关系(新特征因为我们的设计而起作用)。一个糟糕的BPM在实验控制上做出了妥协,有利于短期的业务结果。他们保持一个测试运行,直到它达到统计意义,并声明一个目标样本大小。一个糟糕的BPM并不能清晰地表达出设计和工程团队的实验条件和详细的假设。这导致了多次修订和会议(可能是由于需要花费多少时间而对实验的怨恨)。糟糕的BPM不会庆祝零结果,也不会因为没有过度投资于无效的功能而节省了公司的资金。


A Good Behavioral Product Manager Religiously Assesses Benefits and Barriers

一个好的行为产品经理会虔诚地评估利益和障碍


A good BPM creates a behavioral map of all the decisions that a potential and current user must do to reach the key behavior. The map zooms into each step and every detail of the whole process. They use their detailed map to gain a shared vision of the problem and prioritize product and feature opportunities.

一个好的BPM创建了一个行为地图,显示了潜在和当前用户必须做的所有决定,以达到关键行为。这张地图放大了整个过程的每一步和每一个细节。他们使用详细的地图来获得对问题的共同看法,并优先考虑产品和特征的机会。

The good BPM meticulously documents the barriers that a user currently experiences. They do this with a combination of observation, the behavioral map and data. They constantly ask the team what barriers can they remove and what benefits can they amplify. They are deeply worried about small frictions within the process and ruthlessly remove them.

好的BPM一丝不苟地记录了用户当前所经历的障碍。他们通过观察,行为地图和数据的组合来做到这一点。他们不断地问团队,他们能消除哪些障碍,以及他们能带来哪些好处。他们非常担心这个过程中的小摩擦,并毫不留情的消除这些摩擦。

A good BPM instills in their designers an unwavering aesthetic for simplicity and ease. They ask designers to justify every additional step, choice and decision a user must make.

一个好的BPM向他们的设计师灌输一种毫不动摇的美学,以追求简单和轻松。他们要求设计师为用户必须做出的每一个额外的步骤、选择和决定提供理由。

A good BPM builds and articulates powerful benefits that increase a user’s motivation to overcome hurdles. They prioritize features that add immediate, concrete and hedonic benefits to using their product, so long as these also align with positive long-term value for the customer.

一个好的BPM构建和清晰的表达强大的利益来提升用户的积极性去克服障碍。他们优先考虑那些为使用他们的产品带来即时、具体和快乐的收益的功能,只要这些功能对客户来说也具有积极的长期价值。

A good BPM does not leave copy to the end. They understand the role of copy in driving mindset and framing. The product must work hand-in-hand with the copy.

一个好的BPM不会将副本留到最后。他们理解副本在驱动思维和框架中的作用。产品必须与副本一起工作。

A bad BPM creates arbitrary personas like “soccer mom” and segments by demographic rather than mindset.  A bad product manager does not facilitate a behavioral mapping process with the team. They think about changing attitudes and beliefs over changing the details of an environment in which someone makes a decision. A bad BPM does not print out designs when they are reviewing them. They scan them for the aesthetic but don’t ask the designer to defend the copy, visual elements or framing of their designs. A bad BPM does not care if their team is worried about the details.

一个糟糕的BPM会创造出武断的角色,比如“足球妈妈”以及基于人口统计学的细分,而不是心智。一个糟糕的产品经理不会为团队的行为映射过程提供便利。他们考虑改变态度和信念,而不是改变一个人做出决定的环境的细节。一个糟糕的BPM在回顾时不会打印出设计。他们会审视他们的审美,但不要要求设计师为他们所设计的副本、视觉元素或框架进行辩护。一个糟糕的BPM并不关心他们的团队是否担心细节。


A Good Behavioral Product Manager Uses Their Powers for Good, not Evil

一个好的行为产品经理会用他们的力量来做善事,而不是作恶


This is simple but will be controversial when practised. A good BPM uses their powers to bring positive value to their customers lives.

这很简单,但在实践中会引起争议。一个好的BPM利用他们的力量为他们的客户带来积极的价值。

A good BPM works to change the behavior of their users in order to deliver on the company’s mission for customer wellbeing (assuming the mission is positive … tobacco companies need not apply).

一个好的BPM可以改变用户的行为,从而实现公司的客户满意度(假设任务是积极的……烟草公司无需应用)。

A good BPM resists manipulating the irrationality of the human psyche to extract more money from customers for less value.

一个好的BPM不会操纵人类的非理性心理,以更低的价值从客户那里榨取更多的钱。

A good BPM differentiate between short-term and long-term value. For example, if Zynga succeeded in getting me to play games for five hours a day, they may have provided me short-term value (otherwise I wouldn’t keep playing). But they may not be delivering long-term value. Humans act differently when making decisions for short term/today’s self and long term/tomorrow’s self. Because of this, a good BPM would measure the long-term impact of heavy game play and whether it corresponds to positive wellbeing for their users.

一个好的BPM区分短期和长期价值。例如,如果Zynga成功地让我每天玩5个小时的游戏,他们可能会给我带来短期的价值(否则我就不会继续玩下去了)。但它们可能不会带来长期价值。人类在做短期/今天的自我和长期的自我的决定时,会有不同的表现。正因为如此,一个好的BPM将衡量重度游戏的长期影响,以及它是否与用户的积极健康相对应。

A bad BPM consistently prioritizes short-term growth metrics. A bad BPM uses powers to take money and time from their users, without concern or prioritization of positive user value. A bad BPM uses their powers for evil.

一个糟糕的BPM始终将短期增长指标作为优先级。一个糟糕的BPM使用力量从用户那里获取金钱和时间,而不关心或优先考虑积极的用户价值。一个糟糕的BPM用他们的力量去作恶。

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