【译文】WHERE DOES PRODUCT MANAGEMENT BELONG IN YOUR ORGANIZATION—产品管理在组织中到底归于何处?

Only three things happen naturally in organizations: friction, confusion, and underperformance. Everything else requires leadership.
—Peter F. Drucker, American management consultant
在组织中,只有三件事会自然发生:摩擦、混乱和表现不佳。其他一切都需要领导力。
彼得.德鲁克,美国管理咨询师
In my first job in product management, I was based in DC and my developers were based in California. We were early adopters of agile methods but I certainly couldn’t attend daily standups; I wasn’t co-located so I could do some of the daily interactions that seem to be required today.
在我的第一份产品管理工作中,我在华盛顿特区工作,我的开发人员在加州工作。我们是敏捷方法的早期采纳者,但是我肯定不能参加每天的站立会议;我不能同地协作,因此,我可以做一些似乎今天需要的日常互动。
Instead, I flew to LA once a month and stayed for a week of development team meetings. I showed them what I’d been working on and they showed me new product features that were waiting for my approval. It seemed to work pretty well—the key was I tried to share the business and market conditions I was encountering. I gave them insight by sharing the product vision, personas, and market stories. They were free to use their judgment and I was confident they were putting the personas at the forefront of their thinking.
相反,我每月飞到洛杉矶一次,并在那里呆上一周,参加开发团队的会议。我向他们展示我正在做的工作,他们向我展示正在等待我批准的新产品功能。这似乎很有效——关键是我试图分享我遇到的业务和市场状况。我通过与他们分享产品愿景、角色和市场故事来给他们一些见解。他们可以自由地运用自己的判断,我相信他们会把角色放在他们思考的前沿。
The thing was, I wasn’t telling them what feature to build; I was telling them what problem to solve. Even though I was in the marketing department, the product team and I were in sync; we shared a common set of goals and a shared understanding of our roles.
问题是,我没有告诉他们要做什么功能;我告诉他们要解决什么问题。尽管我在市场部工作,但我和产品团队是同步的;我们共享一组共同的目标和对我们的角色的共同理解。
I’m often asked where product management should sit in the organization. Some companies put product managers in development; others in marketing. What are the merits of each?
经常有人问我,产品管理应该在组织中的什么位置。一些公司把产品经理放在开发;另一些在营销。它们各自的优点是什么?

Product management in Marketing

处于营销组织中的产品管理

For some companies, marketing is a horizontal department, focused on strategy across all products and all markets. When marketing is a strategic department, product management can work nicely with sales, support, development, and other groups—our goals are centered around shared product success factors.
对一些公司来说,市场营销是一个横向的部门,关注所有产品和所有市场的战略。当市场营销是一个战略部门时,产品管理可以很好地与销售、支持、开发和其他团队合作——我们的目标是围绕着共同的产品成功因素。
In other organizations, the marketing department’s focus is promotion, branding, and lead generation. In this scenario, product management tends to get pulled into a technical support role for the marketing and sales teams, providing content for demos, presentations, ebooks, and sales enablement. For this type of organization, I recommend these departments hire product marketing managers who have both product expertise and go-to-market skills.
在另一些组织中,市场营销部的重点是推广、品牌塑造和潜在顾客开发。在此场景中,产品管理往往被定位到市场和销售团队的技术支持角色,为演示、业务陈述、电子书和销售支持提供内容。对于这种类型的组织,我建议这些部门雇用既具有产品专业知识又具有进入市场技能的产品营销经理。

Product management in Development

处于开发组织中的产品管理

For some organizations, the product managers are primarily concerned with the product and its technology, so making product management part of development makes sense, at least initially. As a technical role, the product managers participate in daily stand-ups, acceptance testing, and development briefings on the state of the product.
对于一些组织来说,产品经理主要关注产品及其技术,因此将产品管理作为开发的一部分是有意义的,至少在最初是这样。作为一个技术角色,产品经理参与日常的站立会议,验收测试,以及关于产品状态的开发简报。
Having the product manager or product owner close to development ensures that the team is always focused on the right priorities and provides instant access to market insights. The product manager can explain the client’s workflow or skill set to help the team decide which of two options is best the target persona.
让产品经理或产品负责人接近开发,可以确保团队始终关注正确的优先级,并提供即时的市场洞察。产品经理可以解释客户的工作流程或技能,以帮助团队决定两种选择中哪一种最适合作为目标角色。
In these organizations, there’s a danger of product managers being so involved with daily operational issues that they are unable to spend time with customers and must rely on sales people for market insights. But there’s nothing like personal experience in the market to build credibility with the development team. Without it, the product manager role becomes more secretarial than strategic. Product managers get pulled into grooming a backlog using limited market knowledge and tend to take a more development-oriented view of the roadmap and backlog.
在这些组织中,有一个危险是产品经理过多地参与日常运营问题,以至于他们不能花时间与客户打交道,而必须依靠销售人员来洞察市场。但是没有什么比市场中的个人经验更能在开发团队中建立信誉了。没有了它,产品经理的角色就变成了秘书而不是战略。产品经理会利用有限的市场知识来梳理待办事项列表,并倾向于以更面向开发的视角来看待路线图和待办事项列表。
For this scenario, you’ll need a strong strategic product manager in the marketing department to drive the tactical decisions made by product managers or product owners in development.
对于这个场景,您将需要市场营销部中一个强大的战略产品经理来推动开发中的产品经理或产品负责人所做的战术决策。

Product management in Product

处于产品组织中产品管理

Nowadays I’m seeing more teams centered in their own department under the VP of Product, sometimes called the VP of Product Strategy. This scenario ensures that the business, technical, and marketing aspects of the product are in sync. Since they all report to the same person, they will naturally have shared goals and clear responsibility.
现在,我看到越来越多的团队以自己的部门为中心,由产品副总裁(有时也被称为产品战略副总裁)领导。这个场景确保了产品的业务、技术和市场方面是同步的。由于他们都向同一个人汇报工作,他们自然会有共同的目标和明确的责任。
For this team, you typically need one person for overall product line strategy, one for each active product, and one person dedicated to each target market. Ideally you want to create a cohesive team of strategist (business expertise), technical (product expertise), and go-to-market (market expertise) for each product or product line. The titles are less important than the shared goals and clear definition of roles and responsibility.
针对这个团队,你通常需要一个人负责整个产品线的策略,一个人负责每个活跃的产品,一个人负责每个目标市场。理想情况下,你希望为每个产品或产品线创建一个有凝聚力,由战略家(业务专家)、技术专家(产品专家)和入市专家(市场专家)的团队。与共同的目标、角色和责任的明确定义相比,头衔并不那么重要。
As for physical location, co-location is less important for these three roles; instead put them near their primary interfaces. I like to see the strategist close to the executives, the technical role near the developers, and the go-to-market expert near the market of target customers.
至于这三个角色的实际位置,协同定位并不那么重要;而是把他们放在它们的primary interfaces附近。我喜欢看到战略人员接近高管,技术人员接近开发人员,入市专家接近目标客户市场。
Here’s the thing: there’s no “best practices” organization chart. Each company is unique. What works for others may not work for you. All we can do is ensure that each team has the skills they need and close interfaces with their counterparts in other organizations.
事情是这样的:没有“最佳实践”组织图。每个公司都是独一无二的。对别人有用的东西不一定对你有用。我们所能做的就是确保每个团队都拥有他们所需要的技能,并与其他组织中的对手保持密切的联系。

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